Animal Studies

Developmental Genes & Apoptosis

TBX gene family provide instructions for making proteins called T-box proteins that play critical roles during embryonic development (Gilbert 2000 and Isaac et al., 1998). These proteins are especially important for normal development of the arms, hands, and heart. Mutations in these genes lead to disorders that involve the abnormal development of tissues in which a particular T-box gene is active. Development of the forelimb buds was examined under bright field (blue arrows) after LAR treatment and either empty pCMV6 vector, Tbx2 or Tbx3 overexpression vector injection in vitro. Over-expression of Tbx2 and Tbx3 in embryos rescued the development of forelimb buds under LAR treatment (upper picture). Dead cells were observed in forelimb buds by whole mount Nile Blue staining (red arrows) after LAR treatment and either empty pCMV6 vector or Tbx2 or Tbx3 over expression vector injection in vitro. Dark blue colors represent positive dead cells in the embryos. (Lower picture) References: Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Formation of the Limb Bud. Available from: Isaac A, Rodriguez-Esteban C, Ryan A, Altabef M, Tsukui T, Patel K, Tickle C, Izpisua-Belmonte JC. 1998. Tbx genes and limb identity in chick embryo. Development 125:1867-1875. Tang LY, Li L, Borchert A, Lau CBS, Leung PC, Wang CC. 2012. Molecular studies of the congenital malformation induced by Largehead Atractylodes Rhizome, the most commonly used Chinese medicine for threatened miscarriage. Mol Hum Reprod 18:585-592